At present, every fifth child in Russia suffers from hyperactivity to one degree or another. Such children are distinguished by extreme impulsivity, restlessness, and increased motor activity. This ailment in the language of doctors is called attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Its symptoms are more common in boys and are found from the age of 3 years.
Hyperactive children stand out prominently in the team. They cannot play with the same toys for a long time, they move a lot, require increased attention to themselves, do not complete the work they have begun, as a rule, are emotionally unstable.
Features of a child diagnosed with ADHD
It is possible to say for sure that a child is hyperactive only after long-term observation by his specialists. Many children have some signs of ADHD. But for the formulation of this diagnosis, a lot of symptoms must coincide.
Hyperactive children are characterized by:
- fussiness in movements;
- restless sleep;
- lack of perseverance and patience;
- excessive talkativeness;
- showing impatience;
- negligence in performing the assigned task;
- inability to concentrate on details;
- difficulties in communication;
- lack of self-discipline;
- the desire to break something, destroy, enter into conflict.
A possible sign of hyperactivity is also the child’s desire to pick up any objects, lack of interest in listening to fairy tales, inability to make complete sentences from words.
In the school period, the characteristics of a child with hyperactivity are even more pronounced. These children usually suffer:
- increased sensitivity;
- low self-esteem;
- increased excitability;
- inability to work in a team;
- outbursts of aggression;
- difficulties in the development of fine motor skills;
- illogicality of actions;
- unwillingness to obey the established rules.
Treatment of children with ADHD requires an integrated approach, and its result depends not only on the professionalism of doctors, but also on the parents’ awareness that hyperactivity does not make a child bad. It just needs to be treated more attentively and with more care.
Hyperactive children – who is to blame and what to do?
Deviations in the psychological development of a child can manifest themselves for the following reasons:
- unfavorable pregnancy: bad habits, stress, unhealthy diet, taking medications can negatively affect the intrauterine development of the fetus and affect the future health of the child;
- hypoxia and asphyxia of the fetus, premature birth;
- unstable psychological atmosphere in the family;
- improper upbringing of the child;
- hereditary factors.
In raising hyperactive children, it is extremely important to treat them calmly. High-pitched conversations, rude moralizing, punishment will only aggravate the problem. All family members should build their relationship with such a child in the same way: in order to create a favorable emotional environment around him.
The actions of adults raising a hyperactive child should be aimed at increasing his self-esteem, developing the skills of self-organization and self-discipline. For this, you can use the simplest planning methods.
For example, hang information sheets around the children’s room with the things that the child must do today (wash the dishes, make the bed, clean up toys, do homework). In this case, you can use a reward system. It will be useful to involve the baby in group games and communication with other children, having previously discussed the rules of behavior with him.
Since children diagnosed with ADHD are very active, they need to engage in physical activity and sports as often as possible in order to fully satisfy their need for movement.
Three areas of work with hyperactive children
Rehabilitation practice shows that working with preschoolers and schoolchildren who have been diagnosed with ADHD should be done in three directions:
- formation of the correct function of the psyche;
- working out communication skills;
- working with anger.
Taking into account the individual characteristics of the child, these goals should be achieved with the help of non-standard solutions, and classes should be held in the form of simple game tasks. It is better to start with the development of perseverance and attentiveness, which is primarily lacking in such children.
Working with a child psychologist is of great importance in correcting the behavior of children with an unstable psyche. At the first stage, these will be individual lessons, in which other children should be included over time. Such training should be built in the form of a game with an emotional background acceptable to the child. Games organized by a psychologist relieve emotional stress and aggression, increase concentration, and teach you how to independently resolve controversial situations.
Treatment of children with hyperactivity
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder therapy is always based on the child’s personality. Some may be shown psychocorrection, others need medication, and others will need comprehensive help.
- Medication methods.
This method of therapy is rarely used, only in the most difficult cases. The doctor, as a rule, prescribes nootropic drugs that activate metabolic processes in nerve cells. They have a targeted effect on certain functions of the brain, helping to restore balance to the psyche and reduce the influence of negative emotions on the child’s behavior. Medicines are used only in small doses and strictly under medical supervision.
Treatment of children with complex forms of hyperactivity is characterized by an integrated approach: drug therapy is complemented by work with a psychologist or psychotherapist. Specialists correct the level of anxiety and fears in children, help relieve psychological stress, and teach social communication.
- Lifestyle changes.
A feature of a child with signs of ADHD is his inability to bring any business started to its logical conclusion. Therefore, the parents of such children need to reconsider the family’s lifestyle and draw up the correct daily routine with the possibility of maximum child control.
Not the least important in therapy is adherence to sleep and wakefulness , good nutrition, walks in the fresh air, sufficient physical activity.
Thus, when treating children with hyperactivity, a well-thought-out system should be used that makes it possible to correct the child’s behavioral functions and solve the problems of his general recovery.