From the author: Hyperactive children need special attention and support from educators and parents. This article contains practical recommendations for interacting with hyperactive children.
Your child needs your love the most when he least deserves it.
In recent years, the number of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been increasing in our Russian society. Sometimes educators and parents are overwhelmed by the excessive activity of children with ADHD, their behavioral problems. Teachers in kindergartens and schools are concerned about the inability of such children to perceive educational material in the classroom.
In this article, I will share practical advice on working with and raising hyperactive children based on my experience with them. First of all, it is worth noting that ADHD syndrome is a medical dianosis , which a psychologist can identify with the help of observations and questioning of parents and teachers, but only a psychiatrist and a neurologist at a children’s clinic are competent to confirm and make a diagnosis. Sometimes adults call a child hyperactive because he is “circling like a top”, overly active and naughty. Often these signs of behavior are due to the temperament of the child, the peculiarities of his relations in the family and in the children’s team, i.e. are of a social nature. However, the causes of hyperactivity are much more serious and are characterized by disorders in the parts of the child’s brain, which are formed in utero or at birth and lay the foundation for all its subsequent development.
The occurrence of hyperactivity in a baby is facilitated by: drinking alcohol and smoking, stress during pregnancy, working at a computer and with electrical appliances, late breastfeeding in infancy, muscle hypertonicity , and more. Given the individual characteristics of children with ADHD, it is necessary to create special conditions for their successful development and education. In the education system, continuity in the work of a psychologist with teachers and parents is extremely important. Having noticed a child with ADHD syndrome, the psychologist must inform the teachers and parents and give the necessary recommendations. It is important to note that in an educational institution, a psychologist, teachers and parents can correct behavioral disorders.
When diagnosing ADHD, a psychologist conducts a series of tests that reveal ADHD: neuropsychological methods A.R. Luria , N.I. Ozeretsky , E.G. Simernitskaya , L.S. Tsvetkova, A.V. Semenovich, O.N. Usanova and others. Tests of self-control and arbitrariness are carried out, parameters are evaluated according to the ADHD criteria according to the DSM-IV classification (Attention deficit, hyperactivity, impulsivity), an attention stability test, an attention switching test, a Toulouse -Pieron test , and a survey of parents and teachers are carried out. The correction program includes stretching exercises to optimize muscle tone, breathing exercises, oculomotor exercises, exercises for the development of fine motor skills of the hands for the development of interhemispheric interaction, exercises for the development of attention, self-control, arbitrariness, communication exercises, cognitive exercises, elimination of anger, aggression and relaxation . Three times a year, diagnostics are carried out and the dynamics of the child’s development is recorded.
Teachers working with a hyperactive child must first of all change their attitude towards the fidget and learn as much information as possible about the behavior of children with ADHD. Work with a hyperactive child should be built individually. The location of the child with ADHD in the room during classes should be in the middle row at the first table directly in front of the teacher. So he will better perceive the information and remember it. The lesson includes physical education pauses and the ability to move every 10 minutes in that part of the room where the child will not distract the attention of other children. A hyperactive child is very energetic and it is necessary to direct his energy in a useful direction (wash the board, distribute black grouse , etc.). In order for the child to have an incentive to learn, introduce a system to encourage the positive behavior of the child, ignore negative behavior. Use elements of competition in the lesson, break large tasks into successive parts. Try to make friends with a hyperactive child, learn to negotiate with him. Help the child to join the children’s team, teach him to communicate correctly.
Parents also need to change their attitude towards the child: be consistent, explain your requirements calmly and in an accessible form. Parents need to avoid excessive talkativeness, mobility and indiscipline. Build relationships with your child on mutual trust and respect, avoid strict rules and categorical instructions, the words “no” and “no”. Repeat the request several times using visual stimulation. Do not allow family quarrels in the presence of a child, spend more time together. Avoid large crowds. Help your child establish a clear daily routine, remove distractions during classes and do not let the child overwork. Do not allow your child to spend a lot of time in front of the TV or computer. Encourage positive behavior of the child, praise him. Give your child homework. Do not use physical punishment! More effective means of persuading a child with ADHD are: depriving a treat, banning pleasurable activities, isolating for a while, holding or simply holding in hugs, extraordinary kitchen duty, cleaning, and more.
Remember that change comes slowly. Much depends not only on special treatment, but also on a calm, consistent attitude towards the child.