Hyperactive children are children who have a hyperdynamic syndrome, manifested in distractibility and motor disinhibition. The hyperdynamic syndrome is based on non- focal disorders of the reticular formation (the subcortical structure that is responsible for the activation of the cerebral cortex ), which is in a state of increased activity. The cerebral cortex is also in a state of increased activity, which makes it difficult to form arbitrariness of behavior . Such children cannot perform any actions for a long time, they are constantly on the move, it is very difficult to educate them.
In such children, 3 groups of symptoms are distinguished:
– Symptoms of inattention. The child cannot listen to the teacher for a long time. These children are forgetful, constantly losing everything, often distracted by extraneous stimuli.
– Symptoms of hyperactivity. Such children very often experience anxiety (drumming with fingers, swinging in a chair). As a rule, they study below their capabilities. The speed of cognitive processes is very high, therefore, as a rule, there are no losers, they capture information well. It is much more common in boys than in girls. Usually they sleep much less than ordinary children, they are very talkative. If they worry, then all their activity falls apart – the most vivid impressions crowd out everything else.
– Symptoms of increased impulsivity. These kids can’t stand in line, they get stuck in the conversation. Show the worst results in the presence of other children and the best if they do something alone. A new and interesting situation captures them for a very long time. It is easier for them at the beginning of the day, when they are not tired yet and can control themselves. Such children are quite anxious, they need to specially form arbitrariness.
As a rule, this diagnosis is made quite early, when the child has not yet begun to walk. With proper upbringing, by the age of 15 after puberty, hyperactivity syndrome disappears, but some doctors believe that traces of hyperactivity persist until the end of life. Such children are able to study in a normal school, but a lot depends on the teacher.
Hypoactive children suffer from the same disorder, but their reticular formation is inhibited. They know less, are often overweight and clumsy. They often fall asleep. Physical education helps to increase the activity of the cerebral cortex . They have poor coordination and are prone to injury.