Briefly about the biofeedback method and its application in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

From the author: Currently, special attention is paid to children with maladaptive forms of behavior, due, among other things, to insufficient formation of regulatory functions. Specific behavioral disorders characterized by increased motor activity (hyperactivity), attention disorders and impulsivity are combined into attention deficit disorder. The issues of organizing psychological and medical assistance to families of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, focused on early and preschool age, are acquiring important practical significance today. Timely complex work significantly reduces or completely eliminates the risk factors leading to learning and education problems. BFB has established itself as a 

Briefly about the method of biofeedback (BFB) and its application in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The method of functional biocontrol (FBU) is based on the universal law of adaptation, according to which the human brain constantly receives information about their state from all organs and systems to control the functions of the body, instantly evaluates all the positive and negative results of interaction with the outside world and makes the necessary adjustments.The principle of biological feedback (BFB) is as follows – the brain, receiving information in real time, can assess which bodily sensations are associated with the desired changes and learns to reproduce them not randomly, but arbitrarily.This law is valid at all functional levels, including the most complex level of activity of the central nervous system, realizing volitional control of behavior.Research in the field of physiology at the end of the 19th – beginning of the 20th centuries served as the basis for the development of the biocontrol method as a scientific direction. The idea of ​​the possibility of arbitrary control of physiological processes using information about these processes provided to the patient appeared at the beginning of the century, but the successful implementation of experiments became possible only in the 60s in connection with the development of technological capabilities that make it possible to implement the idea in real time. It was the creation of a technological base that allowed American researchers to lay the foundation for the practical application of self-regulation training systems (NASA (USA) specialists worked in a biocontrol system to prevent stress conditions in astronauts).Biofeedback facilitates the learning process of physiological control, as defined by the American Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biological Feedback (AAPB).The basis for the creation of the biofeedback method was the fundamental research of the mechanisms of regulation of physiological and development of pathological processes, as well as the results of an applied study of rational methods of activating the adaptive systems of the brain of healthy and sick people. In this regard, it is necessary to mention the great Russian physiologists I.M. Sechenov and I.P. Pavlova – the authors of the theory of conditioned reflexes. In the twentieth century, the ideological followers of I.M. Sechenov and I.P. Pavlova steel K.M. Bykov (theory of cortico-visceral connections), P.K. Anokhin (theory of functional systems), N.P. Ankylosing spondylitis (theory of stable pathological conditions). An active study of the method began at the end of the 50s of the twentieth century. Scientists of the Institute of Experimental Medicine of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences (Saint Petersburg), in which systematic studies in this direction have been carried out for over 30 years, have become pioneers in the development of biofeedback methods in our country. The start of work on biofeedback technology is also associated with the Institute of Experimental Medicine. Numerous works of the school of N.N. Vasilevsky – N.V. Chernigovskaya, O.V. Bogdanova, N.M. Yakovleva, D.Yu. Pinchuk and others. These studies are continuing at the present time: within the framework of the St. Petersburg Physiological School, in Moscow under the direction of the corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences A.M. Wayne, at Moscow State University. Lomonosov under the leadership of S.A. Isaicheva, at the Scientific Center for Mental Health of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, in Novosibirsk under the leadership of Academician of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences M.B. Stark and a number of other scientific centers. From about the middle of the 20th century, methods began to be developed and used in which biological feedback was established with the body based on changes in various parameters (pulse wave, muscle strength, blood pressure).The greatest contribution to its development was made by:studies by Miller NE, DiCara LV (1968) on the development of operant-type visceral conditioned reflexes in animals;studies by Sterman MB (1980) on the increase in seizure readiness thresholds after conditioned reflex enhancement of the sensorimotor rhythm in the central gyrus of the cerebral cortex of both animals and humans;the discovery of Kamiya J. (1968) the ability of subjects to voluntarily change the parameters of their electroencephalogram (EEG) in the presence of feedback about their current values.In 70 years, considerable attention was paid to the so-called alpha-learning and alpha comprising – Nij due to power in the EEG alpha rhythm of the person.Currently, the scope of application of the biofeedback method in Russia is expanding. The method has been introduced in many clinics, and is used within the framework of a rehabilitation complex, it is successfully used to correct attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, as well as to develop the arbitrariness of higher mental functions. There is a gradual introduction of the method into the educational system.The biofeedback procedure consists in continuous real-time monitoring of certain physiological parameters and their conscious control using multimedia, game and other techniques in a given range of values. In other words, before the biofeedback interface – stavlyaet for human kind of “physiological mirror” that reflects its internal processes. Thus, during the course of biofeedback sessions, it is possible to enhance or weaken this physiological indicator, which means the level of tonic activation of the regulatory system whose activity this indicator reflects. For example, training using the biofeedback method to arbitrarily increase the temperature of the fingertips leads to a decrease in sympathicotonia and relief of peripheral vascular spasm.The indications for this method are:Migraine;Tension headaches ;    Post-stroke disorders;    Epileptic syndromes and epilepsy;    Depression (reactive, unipolar;)    Insomnia;Anxiety disorders;    ADD / ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder );    Bruxism, tinnitus;    Dyslexia, dysarthria;Stuttering (logoneurosis);    Blepharospasm;Hyperhidrosis;Post – traumatic stress syndrome;    The syndrome of chronic fatigue;    Postoperative gait and muscle tone disorders;    Chronic pain syndrome;    Pain in phantom limbs;    Fibromyalgia;Scoliosis;Multiple sclerosis;    Urinary incontinence in adults;    Nocturnal enuresis in children;    Psychoimmunological disorders;    Hypertension ;    Raynaud’s disease;Bronchial asthma;    Peptic ulcer;    Irritable bowel syndrome;    Rheumatoid arthritis;    Premenstrual syndrome, menopause;    Erectile dysfunction (impotence);    Diabetes mellitus types I and II;    Thyrotoxicosis;Alcoholism;Addiction;Smoking;Preparing pregnant women for childbirth;Contraindications to use are: states of acute psychosis, photosensitive epilepsy, severe dementia.Benefits of the functional biocontrol method: 1. Objectivity – during the session, objective data on the state of specific physiological parameters at each specific moment of time are reflected, which avoids subjective assessments of the success of the student’s actions.2. Versatility – the method can be used in medicine, pedagogy, psychology, etc.3. Polyfunctionality, complexity – working with one parameter, affects the state as a whole, both at the physiological level and at the emotional level.4. Accuracy of the direction of influence – the method works with the cause, and not with the consequence of the violation.5. Security.6. Non-drug – the method allows you to use the internal mechanisms of adaptation of the body, which in life are suppressed or impaired. From the restoration allows to reduce the energy consumption of the body while improving the quality of the functioning of its systems.7. Short-term training (on average, 8 lessons are enough).8. Durability – ways of changing the state have a significant motor component, the skill is developed at the level of the body’s memory, which ensures its long-term storage in memory. In addition, in the course of the formation of a skill, the nervous system itself is also trained, which seeks to spontaneously maintain the most favorable mode of functioning of the organism.On the encephalogram with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, there is a deficiency of the β-rhythm, which is one of the parameters of the electrical activity of the brain, which ensures concentration of attention. To increase the concentration of attention, the scientists suggested using the biofeedback method, in which patients can independently influence the rhythms of the electrical activity of the brain.This method allows the brain to independently find the best way to work and improve attention. Since the brain is flexible enough in children, it can be “trained” to function properly.

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