According to statistics, the percentage of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in preschool institutions and schools is increasing every year. The main manifestations are a lack of active attention, impulsivity and increased motor activity. Hyperactivity is based on minimal brain dysfunction (MBD). As emphasized by Zakharov A.I. ), MMD is accompanied by behavioral manifestations:
lack of restraining principles;
feelings of guilt and anxiety.
They say about such children that they are without “brakes”.
Sometimes hyperactivity is also accompanied by outbreaks of aggression caused by the constant dissatisfaction of others and a huge amount of remarks and shouts.
In this regard, more and more importance is being paid to the examination and correction of children with attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity disorder. According to statistics, children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) make up from 5 to 15% of schoolchildren (that is, in each class of a regular school there are 2-3 children), while, despite a fairly high intelligence, these children often have significant problems with learning (30-50% cannot master the educational material of secondary school). Big troubles occur with them 3 times more often ( in particular, car accidents). Children with ADHD find it difficult to control their behavior. This leads to difficulties in communicating with others, including peers, because. they do not follow generally accepted rules. Almost all children with ADHD are a fairly large social risk group.
It was revealed that the earlier the correction is carried out, the more fully the restoration of impaired functions will occur, since the nervous system of children is extremely plastic and has high compensatory capabilities ( Bryazgunov I.P., 2002.)
Commonly used drug therapy includes the appointment of psychostimulants, antidepressants and antipsychotics. The latter reduce the motor activity of the child and worsen cognitive functions. Does not solve the problem and the appointment of nootropic drugs. Medications are usually taken for a long time, however, despite temporary success after the end of the course of therapy, the symptoms of ADHD may return. Currently, non-drug directions in the elimination of disorders of the central nervous system are being developed quite widely. For example, recently psychotherapeutic work has been carried out with such students, both individual and group (fairy tale therapy, game therapy , psychodrama, trainings for the development of the emotional-volitional sphere). Methods based on the feedback between the physiological characteristics of brain activity and mental processes are being intensively introduced. The best known method is EEG biofeedback or the so-called neurofeedback (Chernigovskaya N.V., 1978; Yakovlev N.M., 2001). However, these methods are lengthy (from 40 procedures, 50-60 minutes each) and require sufficient perseverance and attention from clients, which, unfortunately, is absent in children with ADHD.
Today, we in Krasnodar can also use a simpler method of psychobiological correction, which is aimed at activating the protective mechanisms of the brain with the help of sound rhythms similar to the individual alpha brain waves of a particular child (patent No. 2306852). We observed 56 children with ADHD aged 7 to 11 years. All children, along with a clinical neurological examination before and after 20 correction procedures, were examined for attention parameters (stability, concentration, Schult table ). The ability to switch attention using the 49-digit two-color Garbov-Schult table . The effectiveness of the correction was monitored by electroencephalography (Neuron-Spectrum-3), for an objective assessment, data from spectral and coherent analyzes were used.
Before the correction according to the brain map, 95% of children in the frontal lobes of the brain recorded slow pathological rhythms of the delta range with an amplitude above 300 μV. Since the frontal lobes of a person are responsible for higher mental functions, attention, memory, behavior control, the slowness of nervous processes leads to a deterioration in the cognitive processes of schoolchildren. Thanks to the natural mechanisms of restoring the vital activity of the brain, children are forced to activate their frontal lobes with their movement.
After 10-15 psychobiocorrection sessions , pathological sleep rhythms decreased from 300 μV to 70 μV. Thus, the neurons that were in “dormant” after the correction began to actively work in the frontal lobes. The results of the test showed that the children’s indicators of concentration, stability and distribution of attention increased as a result. Positive dynamics on the EEG manifested itself in the form of an improvement in the regularity of the main rhythm. On the EEG spectrograms, this was expressed in an increase in the power of the alpha range (20-35%), in coherent analysis – a decrease in the initially elevated level of interhemispheric relations in the central and parietal regions. After about 10-12 procedures, the children became more calm, assiduous, decreased or completely disappeared additional movements. Attention scores also increased significantly.
As an example, we present the following observation. Petya N., 7 years old. Diagnosis: attention disorder with hyperactivity. Complaints about the restlessness of the boy in the classroom, low attention, hardly fell asleep. The father, who worked at the factory in shifts, could not stand the restless nights and left the family. After the correction: Many did not recognize Petya: he became more calm, reasonable, began to sleep without problems at night. The father, having learned about this, asked to return back. The mother of the child put it this way: “We are now calculating the time before the correction and after the correction.”
Thus, the proposed psychobiological correction is effective in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and EEG coherence analysis, as a reflection of the state of intracerebral interaction, can be used as an objective supplement in the subjective interpretation of the dynamics of negative symptoms in assessing the effectiveness of therapy.