By the nature of my work, I often advise parents on the issues of correction, interaction, education and development of a hyperactive child. Some parents ask, “Why did the child develop hyperactivity?” This article is devoted to the answer to this question.
The causes of ADHD have not yet been fully elucidated, despite a large number of studies in this direction. However, at the present stage, three groups of reasons for the development of the syndrome are dominant:
damage to the central nervous system during pregnancy and childbirth (occurs in 84%);
genetic factors (found in 57% of cases);
negative effect of intrafamilial factors (63% of cases).
The causes of early damage to the central nervous system during pregnancy and childbirth can be: infectious diseases of a woman, malnutrition of the mother, the existence of a threat of miscarriage, strong feelings, taking medications to maintain pregnancy and stimulate childbirth, smoking, alcohol consumption during gestation, prematurity. Premature birth, fetal cord entanglement, cerebral hypoxia, rapid or protracted labor, and caesarean section increase the child’s risk of ADHD. The living of a pregnant mother in environmentally hazardous conditions, the use by her, and subsequently by the child, of products containing harmful additives are also the causes of ADHD. According to the results of numerous studies, one of the most common causes of deviating mental development is birth trauma of the cervical spine. In boys, ADHD is much more common, due to the higher vulnerability of the brain of the male fetus to damage during pregnancy and childbirth. In girls, the brain has a greater reserve of compensatory capacities than in boys.
The characteristic manifestations of the genetic factor can be traced in several generations of the same family, much more often among male relatives. The influence of biological factors plays a significant role at a young age, then the role of socio-psychological factors, especially intra-family relations, increases.
Family problems (frequent quarrels and scandals, incomplete family, lack of attention to the child, overly strict upbringing, physical punishment, alcoholism of parents) are factors that provoke the occurrence of hyperactivity syndrome in children. A big psychological trauma for a child is the forced parting with a father who has abandoned his family.
Children with hyperactivity syndrome have sufficiently high compensatory mechanisms, for which certain conditions must be met:
– providing emotionally neutral education without intellectual overload; – compliance with the daily routine and sufficient time for sleep;
– appropriate medication support;
– development of individual assistance to a child from neurologists, psychologists, educators, parents;
– timely and complete neuropsychological correction.